Array methods in Javascript

Array is one of the most important and frequently used concepts in JS. If someone raises the question “What is an array?”, we used to say,

“An array is a homogeneous collection of elements”.

My own definition of the array is,

It is a data structure used for arranging the elements or data as a group and each element can be accessed through its index.

To develop a JS enabled application, we should know this basic concept of arrays and the methods to be used.

For e.g:

const sampleArray = [  ‘HTML’  ,  ‘JavaScript’  ,  ‘ES6’ ]


sampleArray [ 0 ] – ‘HTML’

sampleArray [ 1 ] – ‘JavaScript’

sampleArray [ 2 ] – ‘HTML’

Now, let us see some most commonly used array methods with simple examples

  • length:

To find the length or size of a particular array.

Eg: console.log(sampleArray.length); 

Output: 3
  • Adding an element to an array:
  1. push:

    To add an element at the end of an array.

    Eg: sampleArray.push(‘NodeJS’); 
    Output:  [  ‘HTML’  ,  ‘JavaScript’  ,  ‘ES6’ ,  ‘NodeJS’ ]
  2. unshift:

    To add an element at the front of an array.

    Eg: sampleArray.unshift(‘NodeJS’); 
    Output:  [ ‘NodeJS’ ,   ‘HTML’  ,  ‘JavaScript’  ,  ‘ES6’  ]
  • Removing element(s) from an array:
  1. pop:

    To remove the last element from an array.

    Eg: sampleArray.pop(); 
    Output:  [  ‘HTML’  ,  ‘JavaScript’ ]

    Here ES6 is removed as it was at the end of the array.

  2. shift:

    To remove the first element in the array.

    Eg: sampleArray.shift(); 
    Output:  [  ‘JavaScript’  ,  ‘ES6’  ]

    Here HTML is removed as it was the first element in the array.

  3. Remove an item by index position – splice(pos,1)

    To remove an element by index position.

    Eg: sampleArray.splice(2, 1);
    Output:  [  ‘HTML’ ,  ‘JavaScript’  ]

    Here ES6 is removed as it was present in the index 2 and the second parameter specifies the number of elements to be removed.

  4. Remove multiple items – splice(pos,n)

    To remove more than one elements based on the index position.
    Here n specifies the number of elements to be removed from the specific index pos.

    Eg: const removedItems = sampleArray.splice(1 , 2);
    Output:  sampleArray = [  ‘HTML’  ]
    removedItems = [  ‘JavaScript’ , ‘ES6’  ]

     Here both Javascript(index-1)  and ES6(index-2)  are removed and pushed to removedItems.

  • Copying an array:
  1. slice:
    To make a copy of an array with all its elements.

    Eg: const copyOfArray = sampleArray.slice();
    Output:  copyOfArray = [  ‘HTML’  ,  ‘JavaScript’  ,  ‘ES6’ ,  ‘NodeJS’ ]
  • Find the existence of an element:
  1. includes():
    To find whether an element present in an array or not.

    Eg: var isPresent = sampleArray.includes(‘ES6’);   // returns true
    var isPresent = sampleArray.includes(‘MongoDB’);   // returns false
  • Merging of arrays:
  1. concat():
    To combine/merge two or more arrays to form a new array.

    Eg:  var array1 = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
    var array2 = ['d', 'e', 'f'];
    Output:  [ 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f' ];
  • Operations/Functions that return a new array:
  1. filter:
    This returns a new array with the elements that pass the conditions given in the function.

    const filteredArray = sampleArray.filter(element => element.length < 5);      
    Output:  [  ‘HTML’   ,  ‘ES6’  ] , Here the length of each element is less than 5.
  2. map:
    Here, the given function is executed for each element of the array and the result will be pushed to a new array.

    Eg:     const sampleArray = [ 4, 2, 34, 50 ]
    const mappedArray  = => element*2); 
    Output:  [ 8 , 4  , 68 , 100 ]
  • Looping through an array:
    1. for loop.
    2. forEach
    3. for of
    4. for in
    5. Map
    6. Filter

These are some of the methods which we can use to loop through an array.

And yes…We came to an end and I hope this blog on frequently used array methods will be useful to develop a js-based application. For more methods, refer the below link.


Feeling stressed ?

Feeling stressed? Absolutely you would have felt or might feel it in the future. No one can say that “I am leading a stress-free life”. So, let us understand about its flavours and how to manage it.

Everyone faces stress from time to time. People respond differently to emotions and events that may be causes of stress. For example, will say Introverts and extroverts. Both may experience the same causes of stress, but the response will be in different ways.


An extrovert tends to respond with

  • Anger
  • Impulsive actions such as: 
    • Screaming
    • Throwing objects
    • Hitting

An introvert tends to respond

  • Inwardly
  • Screaming silently at himself
  • Suffering inner anxiety
  • Depression.

        “It’s not the stress that kills you, it is our reaction to it”


Stress comes in two flavours:

  • Eustress
  • Distress

Eustress is your body’s response to positive, happy emotions and events.

Distress is your body’s response to negative, upsetting emotions and events.



And here are some tips to manage stress, have a look at it :

  • Keep a positive attitude always.

  • We need to assert our feelings, opinions, or beliefs instead of becoming angry, defensive, or passive (i.e) be assertive instead of aggressive.

  • Learn to “Say No”  to requests that would create excessive stress in our life. Set your limits.

  • There are some events or situations that we cannot control and we should accept it.
  • Eat something or chew gum. Science has shown that chewing something or eating lowers the stress.
  • We should learn and practice some relaxation techniques like meditation or yoga.

  • Walk away from your computer. Make sure to shut it off 1 hour before you fall asleep.
  • Have a stress ball at your work desk. We should use it whenever stress tries to test us.

  • Spend some time for hobbies, interests, else play with kids which would definitely reduce your stress.
  • Cuddle something. Oxytocin also called cuddle hormone get released when we spend time with others.
  • We should learn to manage our time more effectively.

  • Watch some funny videos or go for a walk.

“May be we cannot live a stress-free life,

but we can try to free us from stress”